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How Often You Should Have S3x According To Your Age (CHART)!

When it comes to our personal and professional goals, we often consult with our friends to guide us and tell us whether or not we’re on track (or maybe we do this so we can feel “normal” when they can relate to us). In some cases, we go directly to the experts.



The thing is, if we were left to our own devices, many of us would have a difficult time reaching that weight loss goal, giving up a harmful habit such as smoking or binge eating, or having those difficult conversations to begin with. This is also true in matters of s3x.

Sure, everyone wants a healthy s3x life but what does that mean exactly? The answer will be differ from person to person. It will depend on a number of factors including lifestyle choices, work schedules, emotional health, and age.

For example, there are some people (about three percent) who choose to wait until marriage, mainly for faith-based reasons, and there are others who only feel comfortable having s3x in the context of a committed relationship. And then there those who choose a life filled with casual sexual encounters. Note that these are not all the “categories” that exist. Also, behaviors may change over time.

While we cannot offer a personalized definition of a healthy sex life, we can present how often you should be having sex according to your age, thanks to a research paper by the Kinsey Institute published in 2005 as well as a few other studies. These should be taken as reference and not as a sole indicator of sexual health and happiness.

First of all, let’s take a look at the average age of first intercourse.

According to the Kinsey Institute, most of us first had s3x when were just teenagers. The average age for males was 16.8 years and for females, 17.2
For their own reasons, there is a sizable population of people who remain virgins.


In a 2009 article published in the Journal of Sexual Medicine, researchers wrote that 5 percent of men (122 of 2,469 subjects) and 2 percent of women (104 of 5,120 subjects) have never had s3x. Those surveyed fell into the age range of 25 – 45.
Age Range: 18 – 29 years old


As you might’ve guessed, on average younger adults are having the most s3x. The report says that they have intercourse about 112 times a year.
Age Range: 30 – 39 years old


There are so many things that change in your thirties. By this time, many people choose to settle down in their careers, get hitched, and start their own families, but not all do. The average number of times per year for this age bracket is 86, which is still at least once per week.
Age Range: 40 – 49 years old


There was a 7 percent difference in sexual activity between the first and second age groups, which didn’t seem like much. However, the difference between the first age group and this one is much larger at 12 percent. Those in their forties are having sex about 69 times a year.

How Often You Should Have Sex According To Your Age (CHART)!

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A Man Who Had S3x With His Rottweilers And Documented His Crime


A Virginia man convicted of performing s3x acts on his dogs will spend the next twenty months in prison, though he will be able to leave to go to work.

Stephen Taylor, 31, was convicted on Wednesday before Henrico Circuit Court Judge James Stephen Yoffy. The judge declared “these acts were really despicable acts, absolutely despicable,” the Richmond Times-Dispatch reports. Though Yoffy’s decision allows Taylor to leave during work hours to go to his job, he is prohibited from owning any animals. In court, Taylor said “I really regret what I’ve done” and stated that he was “going down a very wrong path.”

Taylor was convicted in August on two counts of animal cruelty — a felony charge and a misdemeanor charge. He entered an Alford plea, which keeps him from legally admitting guilt but recognizes that the evidence against him is sufficient for a conviction. Prosecuting Attorney Nael Abouzaki said that Taylor had 171 images of bestiality, ten of which showed him performing oral sex on a Rottweiler. At that time, the defendant had eight Rottweilers and admitted to police that he performed oral s3x on his dogs, per the Times-Dispatch.

Initially, the defendant pushed back on the allegations, calling the charges “lies” and saying that the person in the photographs wasn’t him, but he changed his tune when he appeared before Yoffy on Wednesday.

Taylor’s crimes came to light after police searched his home on a warrant. Initially, they were after his roommate who was arrested on allegations that he raped a 9-year-old boy in 2010. Abouzaki said in court that two of the animals were put down. His roommate, Craig Cox was picked up in part of an ongoing investigation into a child sex ring, he was charged with involuntary deviate sexual intercourse with a child, sexual exploitation of children and rape of a child. He also admitted to police that he knew Taylor was having s3x with the dogs. One dog on the property had an infection in its penis and rectum, WTVR reports.

Yoffy also oversaw the earlier hearing and told the defendant “I just don’t have any words. This is disgusting.” He released Taylor on bond on the condition that he not have contact with animals and ordered him to undergo a psychosexual evaluation. And the defendant got off rather lightly–he could have served a maximum of six years in prison.

While Taylor’s case is definitely one of the more disturbing we’ve seen, there are plenty of disgusting cases of people having s3x with their dogs; in September a 17-year-old boy in Ohio was brought up on bestiality charges for having s3x with the family’s dog — apparently, his crimes were a repeated issue. A couple in New York was caught on camera performing lewd acts with their dog and their bad decision will lead to them having register as s3x offenders.

Though the bestiality charges differ in each state, crimes relating to that level of animal cruelty are almost always categorized as felonies.

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5 Powerful Tips to help you get ripped much faster

These tips may sound simple but they are very effective if you follow them through. It will help you stick to your diet, help you stay motivated, and focus on your workout so you can get the best possible results.


Tip #1 – CONSISTENCY

When it comes to getting ripped fast or losing weight and getting in shape fast, consistency is the magic potion! For a better understanding lets look at this example: the first guy went out and got the best fat loss program designed by top personal trainer customized just for him. The second guy basically went online and got some general information on how to eat healthy and a nice simple workout program he can follow. The first guy only follow his “powerful” customized fat loss program for once or 2-3 times a week. The second guy follow his basic healthy eating principles and workout program 6 times a week. Well, I’m sure you know who will have better results.
It doesn’t matter how powerful your workout program, your diet, or anything else is. If you don’t follow it consistently you’ll never get the results that you were hoping for. However, if you do have a powerful program and you consistent with it then you are setting yourself up for some serious results!
 
ripped-muscle

Tip #2 – COOK IN BULK

I can’t stress this enough when your trying to get in shape, you have to make things easier for yourself. When you have 2 or 3 days worth of meals ready to eat, you don’t have to worry about spending 10 to 30 minutes every time to cook a new meal. Time is a MASSIVE factor in this day and age, when trying to eat healthy especially when you have to eat 4-6 meals a day.
Nobody has 20 to 30 minutes to go and cook a meal every single time he or she has to eat. So cooking a meal in bulk is vital if you want to make things easier for yourself. A good example would be to barbecue 20 chicken breast and cook 10 to 20 sweet potatoes all at once. This way when your ready to eat you’ll have a complete balance meal. This will also help you stick to your diet and continue to the results your looking for. Just remember that when cooking bulk, be sure to cook the kind of foods that can last for 2-3 days. There’s no point in cooking 3 days worth of food that will be spoiled the very next day.
meal

Tip #3 – ACCEPT FAILURE THEN MOVE ON

Things are going to happen in life. Every now and then you blowout a workout because you want to go out with your friends or maybe it’s someone’s birthday and you want to have a slice of cake. Just except it, don’t feel guilty, enjoy your choice and then get back on track the very next day. The fact is one bad meal or an evening out with the boys is not going to messed up your program if your consistent on a daily basis about 95 percent of the time.
Just stick to your diet and continue with your workout program. Unfortunately, people do something wrong and allow it to become a complete train wreck. For example, one might think “I already had a slice of cake, mind as well have McDonald’s, pizza” or whatever it might be! Then the whole day becomes a train wreck because they felt guilty and figured they already messed things up.
If you find yourself in this position next time whether you meet up with someone or maybe you your craving took over or you just had to get a pizza. Just except it, enjoy it, and get right back on track. Don’t let it mess up all the hard work you already put in. Remind yourself how far you’ve come and how far you still have to go to get the body want.
burger

Tip #4 – REMOVE ALL TEMPTATION

This is one of the step that’s going to save your from many days of cheating and messing up on your diet. You will get tempted, you will get cravings, you will want to eat junk food especially in the first 2-3 weeks. By getting rid of all the temptation and all the unhealthy food in your house is going to make it easy on yourself to resist that temptation and stick to your diet.
If you just feel like chewing on something when bored or just have a little craving. What you do is stock your house with something you CAN eat. The best kind of snacks are low calories snacks like carrots or celery sticks. You can chew on it without having to worry about messing up your diet.
junk food

Tip #5 – TELL EVERYONE

This is one of those things that a lot of people are scare to do is to tell their best friends, tell their family members that their going on a weight loss program.
Most of us are just scared that they’re going to make fun of us. The truth is people normally make fun of you if you’ve never been committed before.You tell them that your starting on Monday and by Wednesday the program is over. But if you are committed and stick to the program, people will see that, then they will start to support you towards your goal.
They will tell you when your eating unhealthy, they will try to avoid eating unhealthy food around you, they will even tell you to go to the gym and workout. Another thing is once they start seeing you lose weight, you might even encourage them to start living a healthy life. A few months later once they see you lose a good amount of weight, they will also become encourage and eventually will want to join you!
So if your starting a new weight loss program a great technique to make sure you stick to it, an excellent way to stay committed is to tell everybody. That’s a great thing that doesn’t apply to only weight lifting but in LIFE in general.
Tell people what you want to achieve out of life and the chances is once you put things out there, universe will find ways to get you what you want. Put it on Facebook, Youtube, Instragram, and even if people make fun of you in the beginning but once you start getting results. They will eventually STOP and start encouraging you instead.
annouce
image: ironmanmag.com.au

Final words

Well, there you go 5 tips help you lose weight and get ripped much faster. Like mention before in the beginning that some of these tips may sound simple but you need to put in all your effort and self discipline to make it work. Just MAKE SURE you remember to:
  • stick to your workout program
  • stick to your fat loss program
The more things you incorporate to make things easy for yourself the better the chances of you achieving your goals no time. Did you find these tips helpful? Please let us know your thoughts in the comment section below or give us a LIKE or SHARE, I would deeply appreciate it.

DRINK THIS JUICE 30 MINUTES BEFORE ANY MEAL TO PREVENT INDIGESTION


If you frequently encounter indigestion, try drinking this juice 30 minutes before your meal. Drink regularly to see an improvement to your digestion … and remember to CHEW your food thoroughly!


DO NOT drink juices (or water) during meals as the juice alkalinity may interfere with, and dilute the digestive enzymes (acidic) that are secreted for digestion.





Juice Recipe:
2 carrots
2 green apples
½ cucumber
1 rib of celery
½-inch ginger root

Happy juicing!

Sexy Back High Intensity Interval Training ( Circuit Program)

Sexy Back HIIT Circuit! Blast Back Fat, Tone Up, Feel Confident! Results Speak for Themselves…

Unleash the fierce side of you while flaunting that sexy and toned back through these exercises!

Boxing Jabs

  1. Get in the boxing stance. We’ll use the left jab throughout this article — for the right jab, everything is reversed. So for now, place your left foot in front of your right, right angled out a bit, pointing toward your opponent. Put your hands up to protect your chin, tuck your elbows in, chin down, and make sure your hips are above your feet.
  2. Lean forward with your elbows in and your right hand a little higher than your left. Your right is protecting your chin, playing defense, while your left is up, waiting to strike. If you are taller than your opponent and it is unlikely that he will pull off a straight right to your face, you can keep it low for greater power and visibility. Otherwise, keep it at your chin ready to parry or block.
  3. Transfer your weight forward and jab. Simultaneously shift off your back (right) foot (but don’t let it come off the ground) and put your weight onto your left, while throwing your left arm into a quick, powerful jab. Twitch your entire left side forward while ever so slightly lifting the heel of your left foot. As your hand comes forward, your body’s weight should come forward at the same time.
  4. Be sure to rotate your palm down. When your hands are held at your chin, your thumbs are facing you. But when you go to jab, rotate your hands so that your palms are facing down, thumbs slightly lower than perfectly horizontal. Think of it like a slight corkscrew motion. It’s in that twist that there’s power — kind of like the cracking of a whip.
Bent Over One Arm Dumbbell Raises
These lat raises are a great way to work the centre of your back more.
  1. On your hands and knees, hold a dumbbell in one hand.
  2. Put your weight on your hand without the dumbbell.
  3. Tense your lat on the side holding the dumbbell, raising your arm until it is straight out by your side.
  4. Slowly lower it back down. This is one rep.
  5. Repeat on the other side.

Dumbbell Squat and Press

This is another great combo for adding some endurance into your workout.
  1. Stand with your feet hip-width apart, or slightly wider, with your toes slightly pointing outwards. Make sure your spine is in a straight, neutral position. Make sure your weight is through your heels. Hold a dumbbell in each hand, cleaned up to shoulder height.
  2. Squeeze your leg and core muscles as you lower your body downwards. Lower yourself until your butt is an inch or two off the ground. Hold for 1-2 seconds.
  3. Explode upwards, squeezing your leg and core muscles as you raise yourself up. Push that momentum up through your arms to press the dumbbells above your head. This is one rep.

Push Ups

Push-ups are a bodyweight staple exercise. They are great for working your chest and triceps.
  1. Place your hands shoulder width apart on the floor, making sure your hands are directly below your shoulders.
  2. Straighten your back and legs, standing on the balls of your feet.
  3. Slowly lower yourself down, bending your arms until your one or two inches above the ground. Make sure not to flare your elbows out too much. At most your elbows should be out at a 45 degree angle to your body.
  4. Tense your chest and triceps, pushing yourself back up. This is one rep.

Dumbbell Bent Over Row

  1. Hold a dumbbell in each hand.
  2. Bend forward, keeping your spine in a neutral position.
  3. Tense your core and both lats, raising the dumbbells up towards your torso, holding at the top for 2-3 seconds.
  4. Slowly lower the dumbbells back down. This is one rep.

Deadlift

Deadlifts are another keystone exercise that you really should master. They’re also the exercise in which you’ll likely lift the most weight, so they’re fun!
  1. Place a barbell in front of you, and stand behind it with your shins touching the bar, with your feet hip width apart. Keep facing directly in front of you for the entire movement.
  2. Lower yourself down, grabbing the bar just wider than your feet. Either have your palms facing backwards, or have one forwards and one backwards. This reverse grip helps prevent the bar from rolling, which may be an issue as you lift heavier weights.
  3. Whilst holding the bar, squeeze your shoulder blade together and tighten your core. It is essential that you keep your spine in a straight, neutral position. Do not bend it when performing a deadlift. The deadlift is quite a straightforward movement, the difficulty comes in because you can easily injure your lower back if you’re not careful.
  4. Squeeze your legs and power up through your heels. Raise the barbell against your shins, keeping it close to your centre.
  5. As the bar raises to the level of your knees, move them back to continue lifting the bar up to your thighs. Squeezing your glutes at the top of the movement, but not leaning backwards (this is bar form).
  6. Slowly lower the bar back down again, pushing your knees forwards as the bar passes lower than them. This is one rep.

Clapping Push Ups

Clapping push ups are a great way to work on explosive chest and tricep power. At the bottom of your push-up, explosively contract your chest and triceps to elevate your torso in the air enough to clap once (or more) before you place your hands back. Be careful not to hurt your wrists when you land from this.

Burpees

Burpees are a tried and tested killer endurance combo.
  1. Stand standing in a neutral position.
  2. Squat downwards, placing your hands on the ground, shoulder width apart.
  3. Shoot your legs backwards into a high plank position.
  4. (Optional) perform a pushup from the high plank position.
  5. Squat upwards explosively, jumping into the air with your hands above your head.
  6. Land with soft knees to avoid injury. This is one rep.

Bent Over Dumbbell Rows

Rows are a great way to tone and define your back.
  1. Put one knee on a bench, with your lower leg lying flat along the bench.
  2. Place your hand on the same side as your knee on the bench whilst leaning over. Your hand should be directly below your shoulder.
  3. Hold a dumbbell in your other hand, placing it on the bench.
  4. Tense your lat (the large muscles down the sides of your back) on the same side as the arm holding the dumbbell. Slowly raise the arm holding the dumbbell so your upper arm is parallel to the floor, and your elbow makes a 90 degree angle.
  5. Let the dumbbell come down slowly , rest it on the bench if you need. This is one rep.
  6. Repeat on the other side.
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Cardio Furnace! Rapid Workout to Melt Full Body Fat. Get Ready for INSANE Results.

Never settle for less! Aim high on your fitness goals by strengthening your core and cardio.

#womensworkout #workout #femalefitness Repin and share if this workout melted fat all over! Click the pin for the full workout.






 Squat Jumps



This is a great power variation of the squat. You still lower yourself down slowly, but explode upwards from the bottom of the squat. As you land, try to slow your momentum so you’re working your muscles on the way down as well.

Crunches


The crunch is a great base ab exercise.
Lie flat on your back.
Place your hands at the side of your head or flat beside you. Don’t pull on your head or neck.
Tense your abs to bring your torso off the floor, whilst at the same time using your abs to raise your legs into the air to complete the crunch.
Hold for 2-3 seconds before returning to a flat initial position. One crunch is one rep.

Jackknife From Lying Flat



The jackknife is another great exercise for hitting the full length of your ab muscles.
Lie flat on your back with your hands stretched out above your head.
Engage your ab muscles, raising your torso and keeping your arms beside your head until the top of your crunch.
At the same time, use your abs to raise your legs towards you whilst keeping them straight.
When you’re at the top of your crunch, continue to move your arms around to the side of your legs, tensing your abs in this position.
Slowly reverse this movement, lowering your legs and torso until you’re lying flat again. This is one rep.

Bodyweight Pistol Squats


The pistol squat is the king of lower body, bodyweight exercises. It’s very difficult to master, but amazing at building leg strength and size without weights. Plus, it’s a great party trick!
Stand on one leg, getting you balance and making sure your weight is through your heel. Put your arms out straight in front of you, and raising your other leg so your knee is bent. Your raised leg will form a counterbalance to give you stability.
Really squeeze your core and the leg you’re standing on. Slowly bend the leg lowering your torso downwards. Take it slow.
At the lowest, your butt should be an inch or two off the ground and your other leg should be extended out straight in front of you.
Squeeze your leg again, slowly raising your body upwards again. This is one rep (congratulations)!
Repeat on the other leg.

Squat With Lateral Leg Raise


This is a great dynamic movement to hit multiple muscle groups.
Hold a dumbbell in each hand, cleaned up to shoulder height. Perform a standard squat, lowering yourself to an inch or two above the ground.
Squeeze your glutes and hamstrings to send your torso upwards. As you’re almost standing straight again, lift up one leg to the side, squeezing your glutes, core and hip abductors.
Hold your leg at the top for 1-2 seconds before slowly lowering it down again. This is one rep.
Repeat for the other leg.

Glute Bridge to Leg Raise


This variation of the glute bridge helps remove some stability whilst working your legs.
Perform a standard glute bridge.
At the top of the glute bridge, tense your hip flexors and abs, bringing one knee up until it’s directly above you.
Return your leg slowly back down to the ground. This is one rep.
Repeat with the other leg.

Glute Bridge


An essential move to grow big glutes!
Lie flat on your back with your arms at your side.
Bend your knees and place your heels on the floor.
Squeeze your glutes to lift your hips off the ground until your knees, hips and shoulders are all aligned. Hold for 2-3 seconds at the top.
Slowly release back down until your hips are on the floor. This is one rep.

Donkey Kicks


Start on your hands and knees. Have your hands directly below your shoulders.
Squeeze your glute, kicking one leg backwards towards the sky with your knee bent, squeezing at the top for 2-3 seconds.
Slowly return the leg until you’re on both knees. This is one rep.
Repeat for the other leg.

Swimmers


Swimmers are a great way to work your whole body whilst giving your lower back a workout.
Lie on your stomach and squeeze your glutes as hard as you can, raising both legs off the ground.
Reach forwards with your arms, keeping your palms facing downwards a few inches above the ground.
Lift your alternate arm and leg up into the air, squeezing all of the muscles from your shoulders down to your glutes. This is one rep.
Repeat with the other arm rapidly.

Plank Rotations


Start in a high plank / push up position.
Tense your core, shifting your weight over one of your arms. Lift the other arm, rotating it around until it is pointing up in the air. Hold for 2-3 seconds.
Slowly reverse this motion, keeping your core tense until it is under you securely again. This is one rep.

Source: Transformfitspo
 

Bizarre Origins of 4th-Century 'Santa Claus Bone' Revealed

A pubic bone claimed to be that of St. Nicholas, whose generosity inspired tales of Santa Claus, has been dated to the fourth century by scientists at Oxford University. The researchers said they believe the bone may really come from the saint.


The partial pubic bone, thought to belong to St. Nicholas, resides at the St. Martha of Bethany Church/Shrine of All Saints, in Morton Grove Illinois.Credit: copyright T. Higham and G. Kazan

However, the bone has a bizarre backstory that calls into question whether the relic is really from St. Nicholas, Live Science has found.

The saint passed away around the year 343 in Myra, in what is now Turkey. The fourth-century date of the bone "suggests that we could possibly be looking at remains from St. Nicholas himself," Tom Higham, an archaeology professor at Oxford University, said in a statement issued by Oxford. The claim has gone viral online, with media outlets proclaiming that a bone belonging to the real "Santa Claus" may have been found. 

Live Science found that a collector, who asked to remain anonymous, sold the bone to a shrine in Illinois that claims to have relics from over 1,500 saints. A relic can be part of the body of a saint (or someone otherwise regarded as being very holy) or an item that the individual once used.

The Catholic priest who runs the shrine said that a group of nuns from the Catholic diocese of Lyon, France, once cared for the St. Nicholas bone, among other relics, but allowed the relics to be sold on the antiquities market several years ago. 


In the 11th century, sailors from Bari and Venice stole bones they believed were of St. Nicholas from a cathedral in Myra. This photo shows the interior of the Basilica of Saint Nicholas in Bari. Many of the bones from Myra were buried in this cathedral. Credit: posztos/Shutterstock

The collector has sold hundreds, possibly even thousands, of relics over the years on eBay. These include 15 relics supposedly from St. Joan of Arc and relics supposedly from many other saints: St. Peter, St. Lawrence, St. Joseph, St. Francis of Assisi, St. John the Baptist, St. Thomas Aquinas, St. Therese of Lisieux among many others.

The collector also sold on eBay numerous nails and wooden fragments that were supposedly from the cross that Jesus was crucified on and a fragment from the crown of thorns that Jesus supposedly wore when he was crucified. The sale price of the relics varied from less than $100 to more than $1,000. 

The team was unaware of much of the bone's backstory, Georges Kazan, a research fellow at Oxford who helped conduct the tests, told Live Science in an interview.

A spokesperson for the Catholic diocese of Lyon said that she is looking into the claims that the St. Nicholas bone was once owned by the diocese and that a group of nuns in the diocese allowed the bone and other relics to be sold on the antiquities market.
Bizarre backstory

St. Nicholas was born into a wealthy family around the year 270, but he donated his wealth to help the poor and needy, according to historical records. The saint also reportedly risked persecution to become a Christian (Christians were persecuted in the Roman Empire until the fourth century) and eventually became the bishop of Myra. Tales of his generosity and kindness inspired tales of a similarly generous Santa Claus.

In the 11th century, sailors from the Italian cities of Bari and Venice broke into the cathedral at Myra, stealing bones that they believed belonged to St. Nicholas. The thieves brought the relics back to Italy, where the items are interred today in churches in Bari and Venice.

However, the bone that the Oxford team tested was not from either the Bari or Venice churches, but rather was found in the Shrine of All Saints at St. Martha of Bethany Church in Morton Grove, Illinois. The bones in Venice and Bari have never been dated with radiocarbon, as this partial pubic bone was, although the Oxford team said it hopes that one day it will be allowed to perform the procedure on those relics.

The nuns who sold the bone belonged to an order called the Poor Clares, wrote Father Dennis O'Neill of St. Martha of Bethany Church, in his book "Relics in the Shrine of All Saints at St. Martha of Bethany Church in Morton Grove, Illinois" (Trafford, 2015).

"Why it [the bone] went on the market, we don't know," O'Neill told Live Science in an interview, saying that he didn't want to contact the nuns, as he believes that they do not want their identity to be revealed.

O'Neill purchased the bone from the collector as part of a lot that also included burial fabrics supposedly from St. Colette of Corbie (1381-1447) and St. John Francis Regis (1597-1640), a mandible supposedly from St. Christina (who lived during the third century) and two teeth supposedly from St. Fiacre (who died around 640), he said. O'Neill said he didn't remember how much he paid for the relics, but thought that altogether it may only have been $100 or $200.

"It's a sin to sell relics," O'Neill said, adding that "it can be a virtue to rescue them if you're rescuing them back for the church."

The collector did not reveal where he got the St. Nicholas bone; however, O'Neill said that some of the relics in the lot he purchased had letters and notes that matched the handwriting of notes attached to another relic he purchased on eBay that was attributed to the Poor Clares of Lyon.

During the French Revolution (1787-1799), the Poor Clares were "heroic" in their efforts to stop relics from being plundered and took care of them after the revolution was over, O'Neill noted.



Soure: Live Science.

What Happens When You Die?

Few people know what to expect as the end nears. But death, just like life, is a process, scientists say.

If a person has a long-term illness, it's common for the person to withdrawal socially in the months before death. This means that the person may be less interested in certain activities, such as work or social gatherings.


"Often, [dying] people are very focused on their family and on things that are important to them to do before they die," said Dr. Nina O'Connor, director of palliative care at the University of Pennsylvania Health System. 

Related: Do People Really Die of Old Age?

Moreover, people tend to have less energy toward the end of their lives. This fatigue prompts them to sleep more, often for most of the day. There are multiple causes for this fatigue. If the person has cancer, the cancer cells can consume a lot of the person's energy, O'Connor said. Also, irregular breathing can cause a person to have lower levels of oxygen and higher levels of carbon monoxide in their blood, which can lead to fatigue.

In addition, the person is likely eating and drinking less, which means they aren't getting enough calories to be active, O'Connor said. Dehydration can also lead to fatigue, Dr. Michele Casey, the regional medical director at Duke Health in North Carolina,  

Smaller appetite

A person's appetite might dip for various reasons. Their body might be producing more catecholamine, a chemical in the blood that suppresses appetite. Increased catecholamine is common among people toward the end of life, especially in those with cancer, O'Connor said.


Many people report seeing a bright light at the end of a long dark tunnel after a near-death experience.Credit: Singhanart/Shutterstock

What's more, people might eat less because their intestines aren't working as well, meaning they have trouble processing the food they eat. "It might sit in their stomach or make them feel nauseous," O'Connor told Live Science. Furthermore, taste and smell are usually the first senses to go, so food and drink might not taste as good as they used to, she said.

People with advanced Alzheimer's disease often have physical difficulty swallowing, and they may forget how to chew and swallow. "Sometimes, they aren't physically able to eat," O'Connor said.

It can be upsetting for friends and family when a dying person eats less. "In our culture, we take care of people we love by feeding them," O'Connor said. "When people are sick, we make them soup and we push Gatorade."

However, loss of appetite and weight loss are natural parts of dying from many long-term illnesses, she said.
Moving slowly

Diminished energy can cause a person to slow down. For example, they may move, talk and think more slowly than usual, and they may also need more time to process conversations, she said. Medications the person is taking, such as certain painkillers, may also slow them down, as can having out-of-balance electrolytes, O'Connor added.

"The physical fatigue and weakness [people near the end] is profound," O'Connor said. "Simple things, like getting up out of bed and into a chair could be exhausting — that could be all of someone's energy for a day."

Because they have less energy, the person's body may have difficulty regulating temperature, meaning that they may be hotter or colder than usual, she said. 
In the last days or hours before death, people's breathing can become unusually shallow or deep. It can also be irregular, with pauses lasting from seconds to a minute or two, and that "can be scary for their family members who are watching," O'Connor said. "[But] all of it comes from the process of the body slowing and shutting down."

This change in breathing, however, doesn't appear to make the person uncomfortable, O'Connor said.

At the end, some people have a so-called "death rattle" when breathing. This happens because the person is unable to cough up or swallow secretions that build up in the chest and throat. This rattle doesn't appear to bother the patient, but it can be upsetting for loved ones to hear. To get rid of the rattle, it may help to change the patient's position, suction out the secretions, or give medications that get rid of the secretions, O'Connor said.

Despite moving slowly, hearing is one of the last senses to go. "As people are drifting in and out of consciousness, we know they can hear voices, especially familiar voices," O'Connor said. "We give loved ones the advice to keep talking, even if it seems like the person is sleeping."
Slipping away

When a person dies, physicians usually check for cardiac death (when the heart stops beating) or brain death (when there is no more electrical activity in the brain), O'Connor said. 

If someone is a "vegetable," that means there is no more brain activity, and that life support is keeping the organs functioning. At that point, "legally, the life support is turned off because they have died," O'Connor said.

These two types of death — cardiac and brain — are used no matter how the person died. "It could be a sudden cardiac arrest, when the heart stops. It could be a bad trauma, when someone has a lot of bleeding and then their heart stops because there isn't enough blood flow," O'Connor said. "Or, you could have a bad neurologic injury and then have a brain death, where your brain doesn't have electrical activity, and then your body would follow."

However, there is anecdotal evidence that people whose hearts have stopped but are then restarted are able to describe accurate, verified accounts of what was happening around them, Dr. Sam Parnia, director of critical care and resuscitation research at NYU Langone School of Medicine in New York City, 

"They'll describe watching doctors and nurses working; they'll describe having awareness of full conversations, of visual things that were going on, that would otherwise not be known to them," Parnia said. These accounts have been confirmed by medical staff who were in the same room, he noted.

Some studies claim that near-death experiences are just another form of lucid dreaming, while others link these experiences to oxygen deprivation in the brain.

For additional information on the dying process, O'Connor recommended two online resources: the website Get Palliative Care provides palliative care information, and the Hospice Foundation of America has resources on death, dying and grief.

Sorce:  Live Science.  

Life After Brain Death: Is the Body Still 'Alive'?

A 13-year-old girl in California continues to be on a ventilator after being declared brain-dead by doctors. Although a brain-dead person is not legally alive, how much of the body will keep on working with the help of technology, and for how long?



In order to be declared brain dead, a person needs to have no activity in either the brain or brain stem, at the base of the brain.Credit: Johan Swanepoel | Shutterstock

Jahi McMath of Oakland, Calif., was declared brain-dead last month after experiencing an extremely rare complication from tonsil surgery. Jahi's family members have fought to keep their daughter on a ventilator, but a judge has ordered that the machine be turned off next week.

A person is considered brain-dead when he or she no longer has any neurological activity in the brain or brain stem — meaning no electrical impulses are being sent between brain cells. Doctors perform a number of tests to determine whether someone is brain-dead, one of which checks whether the individual can initiate his or her own breath, a very primitive reflex carried out by the brain stem, said Dr. Diana Greene-Chandos, an assistant professor of neurological surgery and neurology at Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. "It's the last thing to go," Greene-Chandos said. 

In the United States and many other countries, a person is legally dead if he or she permanently loses all brain activity (brain death) or all breathing and circulatory functions. In Jahi's case, three doctors have concluded that she is brain-dead.

However, the heart's intrinsic electrical system can keep the organ beating for a short time after a person becomes brain-dead — in fact, the heart can even beat outside the body, Greene-Chandos said. But without a ventilator to keep blood and oxygen moving, this beating would stop very quickly, usually in less than an hour, Greene-Chandos said.

With just a ventilator, some biological processes — including kidney and gastric functions — can continue for about a week, Greene-Chandos said.

Kenneth Goodman, director of the Bioethics Program at the University of Miami, stressed that such functions do not mean the person is alive. "If you're brain-dead, you're dead, but [with technology], we can make the body do some of the things it used to do when you were alive," Goodman said.

Without the brain, the body does not secrete important hormones needed to keep biological processes — including gastric, kidney and immune functions — running for periods longer than about a week. For example, thyroid hormone is important for regulating body metabolism, and vasopressin is needed for the kidneys to retain water.

Normal blood pressure, which is also critical for bodily functions, often cannot be maintained without blood-pressure medications in a brain-dead person, Greene-Chandos said.

A brain-dead person also cannot maintain his or her own body temperature, so the body is kept warm with blankets, a high room temperature and, sometimes, warm IV fluids, Greene-Chandos said.

The body of a brain-dead person is usually not supported for very long, Greene-Chandos said. Doctors sometimes provide support (in the form of a ventilator, hormones, fluids, etc.) for several days if the organs will be used for donation, or if the family needs more time to say good-bye, Greene-Chandos said.

If all of the criteria for brain death are met, "then it's pretty clear that there's nothing left, and we're supporting the body," Greene-Chandos said.

Greene-Chandos said Jahi's case is tragic, and as a mother, she is heartbroken for the family.

There is very little research on just how long the body of a brain-dead person can be maintained. The discussion of brain death dates back to the 1950s in France with six patients who were kept "alive" for between two and 26 days without blood flow to the brain. This generated the idea that "perhaps there's a second way to die, because these patients will eventually die," Greene-Chandos said. (Previously, a person was considered dead only when their heartbeat and breathing stopped.)

Today, with ventilators, blood-pressure augmentation and hormones, the body of a brain-dead person could, in theory, be kept functioning for a long time, perhaps indefinitely, Greene-Chandos said. But with time, Greene-Chandos added, the body of a brain-dead person becomes increasingly difficult to maintain, and the tissue is at high risk for infection.

Terri Schiavo's family, who fought to keep their brain-damaged daughter on life support for 15 years, has said they are trying to help move Jahi to another facility for long-term support. Unlike Jahi, Terri Schiavo was not brain dead, but in a vegetative state in which she had some brain activity.

Source: Live Science